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Stefan cel Mare
University of Suceava
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science
13, Universitatii Street
Suceava - 720229

Print ISSN: 1582-7445
Online ISSN: 1844-7600
WorldCat: 643243560
doi: 10.4316/AECE


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  2/2014 - 14

Addressing Mode Extension to the ARM/Thumb Architecture

KIM, D.-H. See more information about KIM, D.-H. on SCOPUS See more information about KIM, D.-H. on IEEExplore See more information about KIM, D.-H. on Web of Science
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Download PDF pdficon (668 KB) | Citation | Downloads: 672 | Views: 2,609

Author keywords
computer architecture, computer performance, high performance computing, instruction set design, microprocessors

References keywords
embedded(6), thumb(4), registers(4), performance(4), code(4), architecture(4)
Blue keywords are present in both the references section and the paper title.

About this article
Date of Publication: 2014-05-31
Volume 14, Issue 2, Year 2014, On page(s): 85 - 88
ISSN: 1582-7445, e-ISSN: 1844-7600
Digital Object Identifier: 10.4316/AECE.2014.02014
Web of Science Accession Number: 000340868100014
SCOPUS ID: 84901834441

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In this paper, two new addressing modes are introduced to the 16-bit Thumb instruction set architecture to improve performance of the ARM/Thumb processors. Contrary to previous approaches, the proposed approach focuses on the addressing mode of the instruction set architecture. It adopts scaled register offset addressing mode and post-indexed addressing mode from the 32-bit ARM architecture, which is the superset of the 16-bit Thumb architecture. To provide the encoding space for the new addressing modes, the register fields in the LDM and STM instructions are reduced, which are not frequently executed. Experiments show the proposed extension achieves an average of 7.0% performance improvement for the seven benchmark programs when compared to the 16-bit Thumb instruction set architecture.

References | Cited By  «-- Click to see who has cited this paper

[1] S. Segars, K. Clarke, and L. Goudge, "Embedded control problems, Thumb, and the ARM7TDMI," IEEE Micro, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 22-30, 1995.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 49] [SCOPUS Times Cited 72]

[2] K. Kissell, MIPS16: High-Density MIPS for the Embedded Market, Silicon Graphics MIPS Group, Technical report, 1997.

[3] S. Furber, ARM system-on-chip architecture, Addison-Wesley, pp. 188-206, 2000.

[4] R. Phelan, Improving ARM Code Density and Performance, ARM Ltd., Technical report, June 2003.

[5] ARM Ltd., ARM Annual Report & Accounts 2013, 2014.

[6] A. Krishnaswamy and R. Gupta, "Efficient Use of Invisible Registers in Thumb Code," Proc. MICRO, 2005, pp. 30-42.

[7] A. Krishnaswamy, R. Gupta, "Dynamic coalescing for 16-bit instructions," ACM Transaction on Embedded Computing System, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3-37, 2005.
[CrossRef] [SCOPUS Times Cited 15]

[8] J. H. Lee, S. M. Moon, and H. K. Choi, "Comparison of Bank Change Mechanisms for Banked Reduced Encoding Architectures," Proc. CSE Vol. 2, 2009, pp. 334-341.

[9] J. H. Lee, and J. Park, and S. M. Moon, "Securing More Registers with Reduced Instruction Encoding Architectures," Proc. RTCSA, 2007, pp. 417-425.

[10] Y. -J. Kwon, X. Ma, and H. J. Lee, "PARE: instruction set architecture for efficient code size reduction," IEE Electronics Letters, vol. 35, no. 24, pp. 2098-2099, 1999.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 5] [SCOPUS Times Cited 15]

[11] L. Dong, Z. Ji, G. Gui, and M. Hu, "Multithreading extension for Thumb ISA and decoder support," Proc. EHAC, 2006, pp. 78-81.

[12] X. Xu, C. Clarke, and S. Jones, "High performance code compression architecture for the embedded ARM/THUMB processor," Proc. CF, 2004, pp. 451-456.

[13] H.-H. Chiang, H.-J. Cheng, and Y.-S. Hwang, "Doubling the Number of Registers on ARM Processors," Proc. INTERACT, 2012, pp. 1-8.

[14] H.-J. Cheng, Y.-S. Hwang, R.-G. Chang, and C.-W. Chen, "Trading Conditional Execution for More Registers on ARM Processors," Proc. EUC, 2010, pp. 53-59.

[15] A. M. Fiskiran and R. B. Lee, "Performance Impact of Addressing Modes on Encryption Algorithms," Proc. ICCD, 2001, pp. 542-545.

[16] J. Lee, J. Kim, C. Jang, S. Kim, B. Egger, K. Kim, and S. Han, "FaCSim: A Fast and Cycle-Accurate Architecture Simulator for Embedded Systems," Proc. LCTES, 2007, pp. 89-100.

[17] ARM Ltd., ARM9TDMITM Technical Reference Manual, 2000.

[18] C. Lee, M. Potkonjak, and H. Mangione-Smith, "MediaBench: A Tool for Evaluating and Synthesizing Multimedia and Communications Systems," Proc. MICRO, 1997, pp. 330-335.

[19] M. Guthaus, J. Ringenberg, D. Ernst, T. Austin, T. Mudge, and R. Brown, "Mibench: A free, commercially representative embedded benchmark suite," Proc. IISWC, 2001, pp. 3-14.

[20] J. L. Henning, "SPEC CPU 2000: Measuring CPU performance in the new millennium," IEEE Computer, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 28-35, 2000.
[CrossRef] [Web of Science Times Cited 332] [SCOPUS Times Cited 594]

References Weight

Web of Science® Citations for all references: 386 TCR
SCOPUS® Citations for all references: 696 TCR

Web of Science® Average Citations per reference: 18 ACR
SCOPUS® Average Citations per reference: 33 ACR

TCR = Total Citations for References / ACR = Average Citations per Reference

We introduced in 2010 - for the first time in scientific publishing, the term "References Weight", as a quantitative indication of the quality ... Read more

Citations for references updated on 2022-05-12 05:13 in 36 seconds.

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